Glycosylationis a ubiquitouspost-translational modificationresponsible for a multitude of crucial biological roles. As obligate parasites, viruses exploit host-cell machinery to glycosylate their own proteins during replication.Viral envelope proteinsfrom a variety of human pathogens including HIV-1, influenza virus,Lassa virus, SARS,Zika virus,dengue virus, andEbola virushave evolved to be extensively glycosylated. These host-cell derivedglycansfacilitate diverse structural and functional roles during the viral life-cycle, ranging fromimmune evasionby glycan shielding to enhancement of immune cell infection. In this review, we highlight the imperative and auxiliary roles glycans play, and how specificoligosaccharidestructures facilitate these functions during viral pathogenesis. We discuss the growing efforts to exploit viralglycobiologyin the development of anti-viral vaccines and therapies.
The ability of enveloped viruses to hijack host cell glycosylation machinery and adorn their own glycoproteins with host-derived glycans is vital for multiple facets of viral pathogenesis. The recent advances in the field of glycosylation analysis have provided greater insights into the roles that glycans play in protein trafficking and folding, viral attachment, and immune responses to infection. Often these viral glycoproteins are sole antigens expressed on the viral surface, and as such constitute crucial vaccine targets. Since antigenic mimicry is fundamental to most licensed vaccines ; it is important that the glycosylation of immunogens is representative of that observed on the virus, as the elicitation of antibodies against epitopes that are occluded on the virus, and against non-native glycoforms is undesirable. Moreover, glycosylation of immunogens can play central roles in innate immune recognition to enhance humoral immunity . The understanding of glycan structures, modes of recognition, and their functionality have also resulted in the development of several therapeutics to combat a wide array of deadly pathogens [93,105,, , , , ]. We suggest that a growing understanding of viral glycobiology will provide further opportunities to rationally develop novel therapeutics and vaccines.
Reference & Source information: https://www.sciencedirect.com/
Read More on :